Educational Change Models

In the information based society the rate of change is very rapid. Often our perception about the world changes when we encounter new information, systems or experiences. Educators encounter different types of changes to meet the needs of students and society. Now the question educators, administers and policymakers is asking — how to deal with the change? To guide the change, Ellsworth (2000) presents a list of classical educational change models. Continue reading Educational Change Models

Landscape of FOSS in Indian Education

The term, Free and Open Source Software (FOSS), is a convergence of two movements, Free Software Foundation (FSF) and Open Source Initiative (OSI). Though these two movements are different ideologically, functionally both are the same. FSF stands for the moral and ethical side of software development, while OSI focuses on the economic and practical side.

EDUBUNTU a FOSS example in India
EDUBUNTU a FOSS example in India

The advocates of FOSS-based technology believe that India is going to witness another revolution called the gold revolution by automating industry, government, and affordable education through FOSS. In India, majority of secondary school curricula oriented toward proprietary products (e.g., Microsoft Office). FOSS-based education is still in its infancy. However, the Government of India and corporations are taking different steps to improve quality of education by adopting FOSS projects. Continue reading Landscape of FOSS in Indian Education

Educational Technology Standards in India

ISTE's Teacher Standards
ISTE’s Teacher Standards

Educational Technology Standards could be used to evaluate teachers’ knowledge and ability to teach in an information society, as well as their behavior. The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), a premier non-profit organization, creates technology standards for teachers. In the United States and other developed countries  ISTE standards are the benchmark for teacher training and professional development. So far, however, there has been little discussion about educational technology standards in Indian context.

Chapter title from ICT 10th standard text book, Department of General Education, Government of Kerala.
Chapter title from ICT 10th standard text-book, Department of General Education, Government of Kerala.

Continue reading Educational Technology Standards in India

Stages of Concern – SPSS Syntax

The Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ) is a tool to determine where an individual is in the seven stages of concern. The 35 items and eight point Likert scale questionnaire is designed to assess the concerns of the individual/group during implementation of an innovation. The seven stages of concern are:

Stage 0 (Unconcerned)
Stage 1 (Informational)
Stage 2 (Personal)
Stage 3 (Management)
Stage 4 (Consequence)
Stage 5 (Collaboration)
Stage 6 (Refocusing)
By locating teachers’ intense stages of concern (peak stage concern) with an innovation, facilitators can develop need–specific professional development and training.

1. SPSS Syntax for finding Raw Score Total for Stage Zero to Stage Six

COMPUTE FiveItemRawScaleStage0=Q3 + Q12 + Q21 + Q23 + Q30.


COMPUTE FiveItemRawScaleStage1=Q6 + Q14 + Q15 + Q26 + Q35.


COMPUTE FiveItemRawScaleStage2=Q7 + Q13 + Q17 + Q28 + Q33.


COMPUTE FiveItemRawScaleStage3=Q4 + Q8 + Q16 + Q25 + Q34.


COMPUTE FiveItemRawScaleStage4=Q1 + Q11 + Q19 + Q24 + Q32.


COMPUTE FiveItemRawScaleStage5=Q5 + Q10 + Q18 + Q27 + Q29.


COMPUTE FiveItemRawScaleStage6=Q2 + Q9 + Q20 + Q22 + Q31.


2. SPSS Syntax for finding Percentile Score for Stage Zero to Stage Six Continue reading Stages of Concern – SPSS Syntax

A Model to Integrate Educational Technology in a Course

A Model to Integrate Educational Technology in a Course
A Model to Integrate Educational Technology in a Course


Heermann, B. (1988). Teaching and learning with computers: a guide for college faculty and administrators (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Concern Theory in the Adoption of Educational Technology Research

Concern Theory in Educational Technology Research Compiled from Newhouse, 2001


Newhouse, C. Paul. (2001). Applying the Concerns-based Adoption Model to Research on Computers in Classrooms. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 33(5).

Successful Technology Integration

Successful Technology Integration
Successful Technology Integration


Fuller, F. F. (1969). Concerns of teachers: A developmental conceptualization. American Educational Research Journal, 6(2), 207–226. doi:10.3102/00028312006002207

Hall, G. E., & Hord, S. M. (2011). Implementing change : patterns, principles, and potholes. Boston: Pearson Education.

Vaughan, W. (2002). Professional Development and the Adoption and Implementation of New Innovations: Do Teacher Concerns Matter? 6(5). IEJLL: International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning, 6(0). Retrieved from

Stages in Implementation Process

Implementation Process
Implementation Process – Compiled from Hawes (1993).

From the literature on models of implementation, Hawes(1993) classify four stages of implementation process.


Hawes, F. E. (1993). Academic computing from a technological innovation perspective: Faculty concerns (Ph.D.). University of Massachusetts Amherst, United States — Massachusetts.