“The Case of the Developing World” by Jan Visser provide a sense of role and responsibility of an instructional designer in the international development context, in particular the developing countries situations. The key question the author is addressing here is – How does an instructional designer respond in the tremendous diversity in the instructional settings? In order to address this question the author is giving the information and ideas on different topics such as situation sketch, one world or many worlds, reinvention rather than transfer and appropriating technologies for appropriate use (Reiser and Dempesy, 2007, p.236-238). The main point of view presented in this article is, to encourage instructional designers to design in an international development context. However, I believe, the success of an instructional design is based on the felt need and the leadership within the instructional settings. There are three reasons I believe that the claim the author is making is not completely sound. Continue reading Designing Instructional Technology in an International Development Context: I believe, the success designing IT in an International Development Context is based on the felt need and the leadership of the instructional settings
In the chapter, Electronic Performance Support Systems: Visions and Viewpoints by McKay and Wager is to provide tools and resources that help to solve the human performance problems. The key question that the authors are trying to address is – how the EPSS can improve performance in the work place. In order to address this question, the authors are providing important information such as the components of an EPSS, goals, and scopes of performance support and the designing of EPSS with a model called ED4: EPSS (Define, Design,Develop and Deliver). The main point of view presented in the chapter is, traditional training is ineffective and inefficient for many performance problems of today, but EPSS approach can provide information, advice, learning experience and tools to perform a task with minimum support from others. In other words, it is a “Just -in Time” training in a shorter period of time (Reiser and Dempesy, 2007, p.148 and 150). However, there are three reasons I believe the success of an EPSS is based on the internal and external environment of an organization. Continue reading Electronic Performance Support System: I believe, the success of an EPSS is based on the Internal and External environment of an organization
In the chapter, ‘Managing Scarce Resources in Training and Project’, by Goldsmith and Busby is to give an insight on economic and management concepts for managing scarce resources such as people, time and money in training projects. The key question the authors are addressing is – how to manage these scarce resources? To address this question, the authors give information about two significant concepts such as supply and demand and the economic life cycle. These two concepts are based on the business environment or the economic conditions. Demand refers to the need for the training program and supply refers to the available resources. The rise and fall in the economic activity results in the economic cycle (Reiser and Dempesy, 2007, p.125, 127). The main inferences the authors are making in this chapter is that the application of these concepts will help the training manager to make good informed decisions and help to deal with scarcity and inefficiency. However, I believe, the success of a training project is based on the effective co-ordination of these scarce resources in the globalized environment. There are three reasons; I believe, the authors’ assumptions are weak with regard to the impact of Economic Cycle on the resources in a globalized environment. Continue reading Managing Scarce Resources in Training and Project: I believe, The Economic Cycle impact on resources will be different in different countries due to the Current Globalized Environment
Jeroen van Merrienboer’s four component instructional design (4C/ID) model is an example of holistic instructional design model. The Holistic design model proposes a solution for the existing problems in the field of education such as compartmentalization, fragmentation, and the transfer paradox. Firstly, to solve the problems of compartmentalization, the author
argues for the implementation of whole task which is based on the real-time experience. Secondly, the author advocates the scaffolding of whole task performance; a move from single to integrated objectives to solve the problems of fragmentation. Finally the author proposes a solution for the transfer paradox by mathemagenic methods; a shift from teaching for test to teaching for transfer (Reiser and Dempesy, 2007, p.73). However, I believe the success of this approach is based upon the user setting and final implementation of strategies. The following paragraph analyzes the above three solutions and reveals the weaknesses of the assumptions of the solutions.
Continue reading Is holistic design approach a solution to the existing problems in the field of education? I believe, the success of this approach is based upon the user settings and ultimate implementation strategies.
The book titled, On the Internet: Thinking in Action by Dreyfus (2009) address the difficult trade-offs with the use of Internet technology in human life. As a professor of philosophy at University of California at Berkeley and the author of What Computers Still Can’t Do and Being in the World. Dreyfus questions the outrageous prediction of Internet technology.
We are told that, given its new way of linking and accessing information, the internet will bring a new era of economic prosperity, lead to the development of intelligent search engines that will deliver to us just the information we desire, solve the problems of mass education, put us in touch with all of actual reality, enable us to explore virtual worlds that enable us to have even more flexible identities than we have in the real world and thereby add new dimensions of meaning to our lives. (Dreyfus, 2009, p. 2)
The term, Free and Open Source Software (FOSS), is a convergence of two movements, Free Software Foundation (FSF) and Open Source Initiative (OSI). Though these two movements are different ideologically, functionally both are the same. FSF stands for the moral and ethical side of software development, while OSI focuses on the economic and practical side.
The advocates of FOSS-based technology believe that India is going to witness another revolution called the gold revolution by automating industry, government, and affordable education through FOSS. In India, majority of secondary school curricula oriented toward proprietary products (e.g., Microsoft Office). FOSS-based education is still in its infancy. However, the Government of India and corporations are taking different steps to improve quality of education by adopting FOSS projects. Continue reading Landscape of FOSS in Indian Education
Educational Technology Standards could be used to evaluate teachers’ knowledge and ability to teach in an information society, as well as their behavior. The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), a premier non-profit organization, creates technology standards for teachers. In the United States and other developed countries ISTE standards are the benchmark for teacher training and professional development. So far, however, there has been little discussion about educational technology standards in Indian context.
In India, use of ICT in education goes back to the colonial era of the British government. India aired its first radio broadcast in June 1923 by Radio Club of Mumbai In the 1930s, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) aired educational and cultural programs in India through broadcast radio. In 1937, All India Radio (AIR) broadcasted educational programs for school children (Agrawal, 2005). Since 2002, India’s first educational radio station called Gyan Vani (Voice of Knowledge) has been on the air. This full-fledged educational radio station provides programs for different types of learners including adult learners (Agrawal, 2005).
In 1959 India acquired its first television set for an experimental televison service in Delhi. Television gradually expanded to the urban rich. In 1961 Educational Television (ETV) was introduced in the secondary schools in Delhi. This was a pilot project by UNESCO and the Ford Foundations. As part of the project, lessons for physics, chemistry and English were televised to secondary school students (Mohanty, 1984). To develop the rural community through education, in 1975 an experimental project was implemented called Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) with the help of the USA (Agrawal & Sinha, 1981). In 2000, a 24-hour educational channel was launched known as DD-Gyan Darshan. In 2003, in collaboration with Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), a technology education channel was launched targeted to 1.5 million engineering and technology students (Agrawal, 2005).
In India, using computers related to education first started in 1984. The project was called Computer Literacy and Studies in School (CLASS). As part of the project, computers were introduced to 250 higher secondary schools. An evaluation study of the CLASS project finds that students had a positive attitude towards computer learning regardless of the type of school (Agrawal, 1996, 2005). To facilitate the computer based education, the first degree in computer education was offered in 1989 in Indore, India (Goel, 2000).
Agrawal, B. C. (1996). Pedagogy of Computer Literacy: An Indian Experience. Concept Publishing Company.
Agrawal, B. C. (2005). Educational media in India. In U. V. Reddi & S. Mishra (Eds.), Perspectives on distance education : educational media in Asia. Vancouver, B.C.: Commonwealth of Learning.
Agrawal, B. C., & Sinha, A. K. (1981). Satellite television in a Bihar village : a case study of SITE. Ahmedabad: Govt. of India, Space Applications Centre, Software Systems Group, Research and Evaluation Cell, Indian Space Research Organisation.
Goel, D. R. (2000). Educational media in India. Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan.
Mohanty, J. (1984). Educational broadcasting : radio and television in education. New Delhi: Sterling.
Lessons of openness
According to Lessig (2010) “Openness is a commitment to certain set of values …the values of freedom, it is a value of community, it is a value of limits and regulation, it is a value of respecting the creator”
Lessig, L (February, 2010). TEDxNYED – Lawrence Lessig – 03/06/10. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FhTUzNKpfio&feature=youtube_gdata_player
The IT@School is a project under the Directorate of Public Instruction of the Government of Kerala, India. This project integrates ICT, as part of the curriculum and educational system particularly in High School Education for qualitative improvement of conventional teaching/learning system. IT@school is one of the largest deployments of free open source software (FOSS)-based ICT education in the world. The main activities of the project are: Capacity building, infrastructure development, content development, and E-government initiative.